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Resource details

Using human waste

Author(s): Reed, Bob  |  Shaw, Rod

Publisher: WEDC | WELL
Place of publication: Loughborough University, UK
Year: 1999

Series: WELL Technical Brief 63
Collection(s): WELL


Human and animal excreta has been used since ancient times as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. In Europe and North America it has been virtually replaced by artificial fertilizers, but in many other parts of the world it still plays a major role in the provision of soil nutrients.

Waste recycling is promoted for both economic and environmental reasons, but the use of fresh excreta carries considerable health hazards. This Technical Brief introduces the main issues one needs to consider to both control the process and optimize the benefits gained from using human waste, whilst minimizing the threat.

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