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End-term performance evaluation for the USAID/Zambia School Water Supply and Hygiene (WASH) and Quality Education Activity. Evaluation report

Author(s): Limange, Joseph  |  Shatunka, Matilda  |  Chulu, Fidelis Don  |  International Business and Technical Consultants Inc. (IBTCI)

Publisher: USAID
Place of publication: Zambia
Year: 2013


The main objective of the School Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Quality Education Project is to improve access to water and sanitation services in schools in all 12 districts of Northern and Muchinga Provinces and to promote improved learning outcomes. The project intended to accomplish the following specific objectives: (1) promote education access, gender equity, girls education, teacher retention and improved health outcomes in Zambian schools; (2) improve water supply by rehabilitating or constructing water points using conventional and/or appropriate technologies; (3) improve sanitation services in basic schools by constructing latrines; (4) improve local capacity to maintain water and sanitation facilities; and (5) improve water, sanitation and hygiene education in basic schools. The evaluation addressed the following research questions: (1) to what extent were the project's targets achieved and why; (2) what was the level of functionality of the innovative WASH technologies and approaches and responsiveness of the beneficiaries to them in the project; (3) could the approaches applied in the project be replicated and managed sustainably by the local institutional framework for the Education and WASH sectors in Zambia; and (4) how relevant were the project interventions in improving student/teacher school attendance and retention? The evaluation team finds that the WASH Project has contributed significantly toward education in the schools that benefited. More of its benefits are yet to be incurred as its current outcome is sustained. The project is therefore recommended for extension to other schools in the Northern and Muchinga Province as well as other geographical areas in Zambia. Specific evaluation analyses on program findings, conclusions, and recommendations are provided in detail including: (1) extent to which the project achieved its targets; (2) findings on the innovative technologies introduced by the project; (3) feasibility of the project activities being replicated in other geographical areas and ability of local institutions to manage and sustain these technologies; and (4) establishing the relationship between provision of WASH facilities in schools, school attendance, and teacher retention. (Excerpt, modified)

Education  |  Hygiene  |  Questionnaires  |  Schools  |  WASH in school  |  Water supply  |  Zambia